tar- Reading, writing and manipulating ".tar" archive files.

Copyright(c) 2007 Bjorn Bringert
2008 Andrea Vezzosi
2008-2012 Duncan Coutts
Safe HaskellNone




Reading, writing and manipulating ".tar" archive files.

This module uses common names and so is designed to be imported qualified:

import qualified Codec.Archive.Tar as Tar



Tar archive files are used to store a collection of other files in a single file. They consists of a sequence of entries. Each entry describes a file or directory (or some other special kind of file). The entry stores a little bit of meta-data, in particular the file or directory name.

Unlike some other archive formats, a tar file contains no index. The information about each entry is stored next to the entry. Because of this, tar files are almost always processed linearly rather than in a random-access fashion.

The functions in this package are designed for working on tar files linearly and lazily. This makes it possible to do many operations in constant space rather than having to load the entire archive into memory.

It can read and write standard POSIX tar files and also the GNU and old Unix V7 tar formats. The convenience functions that are provided in the Codec.Archive.Tar.Entry module for creating archive entries are primarily designed for standard portable archives. If you need to construct GNU format archives or exactly preserve file ownership and permissions then you will need to write some extra helper functions.

This module contains just the simple high level operations without exposing the all the details of tar files. If you need to inspect tar entries in more detail or construct them directly then you also need the module Codec.Archive.Tar.Entry.

High level "all in one" operations

create #


:: FilePath

Path of the ".tar" file to write.

-> FilePath

Base directory

-> [FilePath]

Files and directories to archive, relative to base dir

-> IO () 

Create a new ".tar" file from a directory of files.

It is equivalent to calling the standard tar program like so:

$ tar -f tarball.tar -C base -c dir

This assumes a directory ./base/dir with files inside, eg ./base/dir/foo.txt. The file names inside the resulting tar file will be relative to dir, eg dir/foo.txt.

This is a high level "all in one" operation. Since you may need variations on this function it is instructive to see how it is written. It is just:

BS.writeFile tar . Tar.write =<< Tar.pack base paths


The files and directories must not change during this operation or the result is not well defined.

The intention of this function is to create tarballs that are portable between systems. It is not suitable for doing file system backups because file ownership and permissions are not fully preserved. File ownership is not preserved at all. File permissions are set to simple portable values:

  • rw-r--r-- for normal files
  • rwxr-xr-x for executable files
  • rwxr-xr-x for directories

extract #


:: FilePath

Destination directory

-> FilePath


-> IO () 

Extract all the files contained in a ".tar" file.

It is equivalent to calling the standard tar program like so:

$ tar -x -f tarball.tar -C dir

So for example if the tarball.tar file contains foo/bar.txt then this will extract it to dir/foo/bar.txt.

This is a high level "all in one" operation. Since you may need variations on this function it is instructive to see how it is written. It is just:

Tar.unpack dir . Tar.read =<< BS.readFile tar


Extracting can fail for a number of reasons. The tarball may be incorrectly formatted. There may be IO or permission errors. In such cases an exception will be thrown and extraction will not continue.

Since the extraction may fail part way through it is not atomic. For this reason you may want to extract into an empty directory and, if the extraction fails, recursively delete the directory.

Security: only files inside the target directory will be written. Tarballs containing entries that point outside of the tarball (either absolute paths or relative paths) will be caught and an exception will be thrown.

append #


:: FilePath

Path of the ".tar" file to write.

-> FilePath

Base directory

-> [FilePath]

Files and directories to archive, relative to base dir

-> IO () 

Append new entries to a ".tar" file from a directory of files.

This is much like create, except that all the entries are added to the end of an existing tar file. Or if the file does not already exists then it behaves the same as create.


Compressed tar archives

Tar files are commonly used in conjunction with gzip compression, as in ".tar.gz" or ".tar.bz2" files. This module does not directly handle compressed tar files however they can be handled easily by composing functions from this module and the modules Codec.Compression.GZip or Codec.Compression.BZip (see zlib or bzlib packages).

Creating a compressed ".tar.gz" file is just a minor variation on the create function, but where throw compression into the pipeline:

BS.writeFile tar . GZip.compress . Tar.write =<< Tar.pack base dir

Similarly, extracting a compressed ".tar.gz" is just a minor variation on the extract function where we use decompression in the pipeline:

Tar.unpack dir . Tar.read . GZip.decompress =<< BS.readFile tar


This is pretty important. A maliciously constructed tar archives could contain entries that specify bad file names. It could specify absolute file names like "/etc/passwd" or relative files outside of the archive like "../../../something". This security problem is commonly called a "directory traversal vulnerability". Historically, such vulnerabilities have been common in packages handling tar archives.

The extract and unpack functions check for bad file names. See the checkSecurity function for more details. If you need to do any custom unpacking then you should use this.


A "tarbomb" is a .tar file where not all entries are in a subdirectory but instead files extract into the top level directory. The extract function does not check for these however if you want to do that you can use the checkTarbomb function like so:

Tar.unpack dir . Tar.checkTarbomb expectedDir
               . Tar.read =<< BS.readFile tar

In this case extraction will fail if any file is outside of expectedDir.

Converting between internal and external representation

Note, you cannot expect write . read to give exactly the same output as input. You can expect the information to be preserved exactly however. This is because read accepts common format variations while write produces the standard format.

read :: ByteString -> Entries FormatError #

Convert a data stream in the tar file format into an internal data structure. Decoding errors are reported by the Fail constructor of the Entries type.

  • The conversion is done lazily.

write :: [Entry] -> ByteString #

Create the external representation of a tar archive by serialising a list of tar entries.

  • The conversion is done lazily.

Packing and unpacking files to/from internal representation

These functions are for packing and unpacking portable archives. They are not suitable in cases where it is important to preserve file ownership and permissions or to archive special files like named pipes and Unix device files.

pack #


:: FilePath

Base directory

-> [FilePath]

Files and directories to pack, relative to the base dir

-> IO [Entry] 

Creates a tar archive from a list of directory or files. Any directories specified will have their contents included recursively. Paths in the archive will be relative to the given base directory.

This is a portable implementation of packing suitable for portable archives. In particular it only constructs NormalFile and Directory entries. Hard links and symbolic links are treated like ordinary files. It cannot be used to pack directories containing recursive symbolic links. Special files like FIFOs (named pipes), sockets or device files will also cause problems.

An exception will be thrown for any file names that are too long to represent as a TarPath.

  • This function returns results lazily. Subdirectories are scanned and files are read one by one as the list of entries is consumed.

unpack :: Exception e => FilePath -> Entries e -> IO () #

Create local files and directories based on the entries of a tar archive.

This is a portable implementation of unpacking suitable for portable archives. It handles NormalFile and Directory entries and has simulated support for SymbolicLink and HardLink entries. Links are implemented by copying the target file. This therefore works on Windows as well as Unix. All other entry types are ignored, that is they are not unpacked and no exception is raised.

If the Entries ends in an error then it is raised an an exception. Any files or directories that have been unpacked before the error was encountered will not be deleted. For this reason you may want to unpack into an empty directory so that you can easily clean up if unpacking fails part-way.

On its own, this function only checks for security (using checkSecurity). You can do other checks by applying checking functions to the Entries that you pass to this function. For example:

unpack dir (checkTarbomb expectedDir entries)

If you care about the priority of the reported errors then you may want to use checkSecurity before checkTarbomb or other checks.


Tar entry type

This module provides only very simple and limited read-only access to the Entry type. If you need access to the details or if you need to construct your own entries then also import Codec.Archive.Tar.Entry.

data Entry #

Tar archive entry.


Eq Entry # 


(==) :: Entry -> Entry -> Bool #

(/=) :: Entry -> Entry -> Bool #

Show Entry # 


showsPrec :: Int -> Entry -> ShowS #

show :: Entry -> String #

showList :: [Entry] -> ShowS #

NFData Entry # 


rnf :: Entry -> () #

entryPath :: Entry -> FilePath #

Native FilePath of the file or directory within the archive.

entryContent :: Entry -> EntryContent #

The real content of the entry. For NormalFile this includes the file data. An entry usually contains a NormalFile or a Directory.

Sequences of tar entries

data Entries e #

A tar archive is a sequence of entries.

The point of this type as opposed to just using a list is that it makes the failure case explicit. We need this because the sequence of entries we get from reading a tarball can include errors.

It is a concrete data type so you can manipulate it directly but it is often clearer to use the provided functions for mapping, folding and unfolding.

Converting from a list can be done with just foldr Next Done. Converting back into a list can be done with foldEntries however in that case you must be prepared to handle the Fail case inherent in the Entries type.

The Monoid instance lets you concatenate archives or append entries to an archive.


Next Entry (Entries e) infixr 5 
Fail e 


Functor Entries # 


fmap :: (a -> b) -> Entries a -> Entries b #

(<$) :: a -> Entries b -> Entries a #

Eq e => Eq (Entries e) # 


(==) :: Entries e -> Entries e -> Bool #

(/=) :: Entries e -> Entries e -> Bool #

Show e => Show (Entries e) # 


showsPrec :: Int -> Entries e -> ShowS #

show :: Entries e -> String #

showList :: [Entries e] -> ShowS #

Monoid (Entries e) # 


mempty :: Entries e #

mappend :: Entries e -> Entries e -> Entries e #

mconcat :: [Entries e] -> Entries e #

NFData e => NFData (Entries e) # 


rnf :: Entries e -> () #

mapEntries :: (Entry -> Either e' Entry) -> Entries e -> Entries (Either e e') #

This is like the standard map function on lists, but for Entries. It includes failure as a extra possible outcome of the mapping function.

If your mapping function cannot fail it may be more convenient to use mapEntriesNoFail

mapEntriesNoFail :: (Entry -> Entry) -> Entries e -> Entries e #

Like mapEntries but the mapping function itself cannot fail.

foldEntries :: (Entry -> a -> a) -> a -> (e -> a) -> Entries e -> a #

This is like the standard foldr function on lists, but for Entries. Compared to foldr it takes an extra function to account for the possibility of failure.

This is used to consume a sequence of entries. For example it could be used to scan a tarball for problems or to collect an index of the contents.

foldlEntries :: (a -> Entry -> a) -> a -> Entries e -> Either (e, a) a #

A foldl-like function on Entries. It either returns the final accumulator result, or the failure along with the intermediate accumulator value.

unfoldEntries :: (a -> Either e (Maybe (Entry, a))) -> a -> Entries e #

This is like the standard unfoldr function on lists, but for Entries. It includes failure as an extra possibility that the stepper function may return.

It can be used to generate Entries from some other type. For example it is used internally to lazily unfold entries from a ByteString.

Error handling

Reading tar files can fail if the data does not match the tar file format correctly.

The style of error handling by returning structured errors. The pure functions in the library do not throw exceptions, they return the errors as data. The IO actions in the library can throw exceptions, in particular the unpack action does this. All the error types used are an instance of the standard Exception class so it is possible to throw and catch them.

Errors from reading tar files